Monday, February 23, 2015

Тарас Бульба. Кто кого жёг?


(о непобедимой страдательности русских причастий)

Запорожцы.
Картина И.Репина, 1880-1891 гг., х/м.

На переговорах Горбачева с Бушем-старшим как-то был эпизод, когда переводчик спутал слова “проверяющая сторона” и “проверяемая сторона”, едва не изменив ход мировой истории. С русскими причастиями просто беда! 

Неукротимый лев американской русистики Стивен Додсон (Languaghat) прислал мне замечательный ляпсус в переводе на английский мемуаров П.В.Анненкова “Замечательное десятилетие 1838-1848”. (Thanks, Steve!)

В главе VIII Анненков пишет о полемике Белинского с критиками Гоголя (мемуар Анненкова есть здесь). На русском этот пассаж выглядит так: 

Но решительное и восторженное слово было сказано, и сказано не наобум. Для поддержания, оправдания и укоренения его в общественном сознании Белинский издержал много энергии, таланта, ума, переломал много копий, да и не с одними только врагами писателя, открывавшего у нас реалистический период литературы, а и с друзьями его. Так, Белинский опровергал критика "Московского наблюдателя" 1836 года, когда тот, в странном энтузиазме, объявил, будто за одно "слышу", вырвавшееся из уст Тараса Бульбы в ответ на восклицание казнимого и мучимого сына: "Слышишь ли ты это, отец мой?" — будто за одно это восклицание "слышу" Гоголь достоин был бы бессмертия; а в другой раз опровергал того же критика, и не менее победоносно, когда тот выразил желание, чтобы в рассказе "Старосветские помещики" не встречался намек на привычку, а все сношения между идиллическими супругами объяснялись только одним нежным и чистым чувством, без всякой примеси.

На английском переводчик мемуара Irwin R. Titunik изобразил это так (книга есть на Амазоне, цитата начинается со слов “Так, Белинский...):

Thus, Belinsky argued against the critic of the Moscow Observer of 1836 when the latter, in some strange fit of enthusiasm, declared that supposedly for the sake of the single expression "I hear" which burst from the lips of Taras Bulba in answer to the exclamation of his son, his torturer and executioner, "Do you hear this, father?" [...] 

То есть верный старший сын Тараса Остап, попавший в плен к ляхам, в переводе вдруг превратился в палача-казнителя любимого отца. Как замечает Додсон, тут трудно решить, что хуже, что переводчик не понял значения страдательных причастий или что явно не знал содержания “Тараса Бульбы”.

Как бы то ни было, а я согласен с упомянутым Анненковым критиком. Сцена казни Остапа с призывом к отцу и ответом Тараса действительно потрясающая. Прямо как из Евангелия, где Иисус на кресте призывает: “Отче! в руки Твои предаю дух Мой”.

Вот она, из XI главы “Тараса Бульбы” (текст здесь):

Но когда подвели его к последним смертным мукам, - казалось, как будто стала подаваться его сила. И повел он очами вокруг себя: боже, всё неведомые, всё чужие лица! Хоть бы кто-нибудь из близких присутствовал при его смерти! Он не хотел бы слышать рыданий и сокрушения слабой матери или безумных воплей супруги, исторгающей волосы и биющей себя в белые груди; хотел бы он теперь увидеть твердого мужа, который бы разумным словом освежил его и утешил при кончине. И упал он силою и воскликнул в душевной немощи:
— Батько! где ты! Слышишь ли ты?
— Слышу! - раздалось среди всеобщей тишины, и весь миллион народа в одно время вздрогнул.
Часть военных всадников бросилась заботливо рассматривать толпы народа. Янкель побледнел как смерть, и когда всадники немного отдалились от него, он со страхом оборотился назад, чтобы взглянуть на Тараса; но Тараса уже возле него не было: его и след простыл.

“Тарас Бульба” много раз экранизировался. В 1909 году вышла первая немая версия. Сто лет спустя, в 2009 году появились украинская “Дума о Тарасе Бульбе” и российская версия “Тарас Бульба” (режиссер Владимир Бортко). Разбирать нюансы — в другой раз. Сейчас же перепубликую широко известную американскую версию 1962 года с Юлом Бриннером в роли Тараса. Американские сценаристы вообще убрали, почти полностью, линию с Остапом. Вместо его казни — дописанная казнь польской панночки, которая и заставляет Андрия перейти на сторону ляхов. Как и роман, все киноверсии оставляют много вопросов и к Гоголю, и к режиссерам. (В YouTube есть отдельно сцена казни Остапа и крик Богдана Ступки “Слышу, сынку!”, российская версия 2009 г.)

В этой заметке, впрочем, я пока только о страдательных причастиях. (Казнь панночки начинается примерно с 1:40 в фильме, один час сорок минут)

Tuesday, February 17, 2015

Sebyashka.


Just discovered a new Russian word for 'selfie' — sebyashka (себяшка).

It comes from the word себя — self. To take a photo of yourself — сделать фото себя, сфотографировать себя, снять себя. Себя also contracts to ся in the endings of reflexive verbs and participles.

Add diminutive suffix -shk- (-шк-) and feminine ending -a and you get a sebyashka. The coinage has a good chance of staying on as it comes out naturally and rings similarly to many other common words, eg. rubashka — shirt. It certainly will compete with the English borrowing селфи (selfie) and all but conquered another home-grown word for a selfie, samostrel (самострел — self-shoot).

Friends on Facebook say that it has been around for a few years, others agreed it's the first time they see. One mother said she'd heard it first from her children, and a language professor said that she had already had students analyze the word.

I made a contribution to further the sebyashka by suggesting a verbal form: себятить (imperfect aspect) and отсебятить (perfect aspect). The professor friend promised she'd give my new verb proper credit (to myself) when introducing her students to it.

Here is how I otsebyatil sebya (otsebyatilsya) — made a sebyashka selfie of myself.

Read also 'Selfie in Russian'

Friday, January 16, 2015

Arseny Tarkovsky Compass Awards.


Арсений Тарковский 
(1907-1989, photo mid 30s)


Cardinal Points Journal is holding their Arseny Tarkovsky translations awards ceremony and readings in New York this Saturday  (Poets House, at 4 pm.). Cardinal Points has had Russian poetry translation contests for several years now, each devoted to one particular poet. Last year's contest was dedicated to Arseny Tarkovsky, father of the film director Andrey. (wikipedia about Arseny and a portrait gallery of him.)

Winning translations will appear on the Cardinal Points website and in the 5th volume of the almanac scheduled to come out in a few months.

Cardinal Points website is here and direct link to Tarkovsky contest page is here, for additional information mail Compass (compass at StoSvet dot net) or go to their facebook page

This translation by Laurence Bogoslaw (USA) won the first prize. 

In autumn’s final weeks, on the decline 
Of bitter life,
Filled to the brim with wistfulness, I walked
Into a leafless, nameless wood.
It was engulfed from edge to edge in milk-
White fog like frosted glass. Its hoary branches
Dripped tears distilled like those
That only trees weep on the eve
Of winter that drains everything of color.
And then a miracle occurred: at sunset
Out of a raincloud peeked a gleam of blue,
A ray of light broke through, as bright as June,
A weightless spear of birdsong cast 
From future days back to my past.
And now the trees stood weeping on the eve
Of noble works and festive offerings
Of cheerful whirlwinds luffing in the azure;
And bluebirds started dancing in a ring
Like hands upon a keyboard, rising measures
From earth to the highest notes the air can sing.


In the first video, Arseny Tarkovsky reads First Encounters ("Первые свидания") in Andrey Tarkovsky's The Mirror. It is this poem that ends with the haunting lines: 'When fate was stalking us like madman, with razor blade in hand.' In the second video Arseny Tarkovsky reads 'Blurring Sight' ("Меркнет зрение"):


Sunday, October 12, 2014

Prokofiev, Donetsk, Ukraine.

Donetsk airport before the fighting.
Photo: Michael1238
The other day I was looking at pictures from Donetsk, in Eastern Ukraine, a city ravaged by the on-going conflict. Some of the fiercest fighting has been around the international airport in Donetsk.

The airport is named after Sergei Prokofiev, the great composer, one of the finest melodists ever, the author of many of the top 100 world favourites and some of the most recognisable Russian patriotic tunes, including the theme for Eisenstein's 'Alexander Nevsky' 'Arise, you Russian people.'

Why is Donetsk airport named after Prokofiev? After all, it's mostly known as the industrial heart of Ukraine with its many mines and steel mills. It turns out that Prokofiev was born in the Donbass region (Donetsk and the surrounding mining villages). The village where he was born was called Sontsovka at the time (Sunnyville), now Krasnoye. It used to be in Yekaterinoslav guberniya (governorate), but is now in Donetsk oblast (region).

 Here is the Dance of the Knights (Montague and Capulets) from Prokofiev's balet 'Romeo and Juliet'.

Saturday, August 23, 2014

The Kingdom of Crooked Mirrors.



Vitaly Churkin.
Photo: www.kremlin.ru

Western media is giving much coverage today to the Russian ambassador Churkin's UN press-conference where he used a curious phrase, 'the kingdom of crooked mirrors.' This quote is from the BBC report (follow the link to read in full and watch the video):

But speaking to the UN Security Council, Russia's UN ambassador Vitaly Churkin accused Western powers of distorting reality.
"Sometimes it reminded me of the kingdom of crooked mirrors because some members of the Council were not concerned about the fact hundreds of civilians are dying."

In case you are wondering what is this kingdom he was talking about, it is a reference to the Soviet fantasy film The Kingdom of Crooked Mirrors (1963, wiki here, watch the video below) based on the novel of the same title by Vitaly Gubarev (wiki about him). The translation is a bit awkward but that’s how the film was titled in English. ‘Crooked mirror’ is a literal translation of the Russian term “кривое зеркало” — distorting mirror as the ones used in ‘hall of mirrors’ attractions at fairs and carnivals. The Russian name for such attraction is “комната смеха” — ‘room of laughter.’ 'Crooked mirror' is also used figuratively to mean distorted reality or distortion.

In the film, a young girl Olya falls through the mirror and, together with her mirror image twin Yalo, accidentally finds herself in a magic kingdom where all mirrors are distorted to show the opposite of what is real. The girls who played Olya and Yalo are real-life twins. Characters in the film have talking names spelled backwards. 

The chase starts when the girls decide to save a boy called Gurd, drug (friend) spelled backwards, a glassmaker who refuses to make the lying mirrors for the rulers of the kingdom. He is beaten and chained to the top of the Tower of Death to die slowly. In the end the girls overthrow the tyranny, the mirrors are smashed and evil characters turn back into creatures that their names represent, for example, Anidág-Gádina (viper) into a snake, Abáje-Jábba into a toad, and king Yagoupop-Popugay into a parrot.

It’s a bright, cheerful film with lots of music, catchy phrases and exciting play on words. I loved it as a young boy and then introduced my own children to the film, who enjoyed it as much as I had.

There are recognisable motives from Carrol’s Through the Looking Glass, but Gubarev must have also found inspiration in Hans Christian Andersen’s Snow Queen. In Andersen’s tale, a troll makes distorting mirror that turns all good into evil. The mirror is smashed and shards are scattered all over the world. One gets into the little boy Kai’s heart. An animated Russian version of The Snow Queen was released in 1957 and has been a top children’s favourite ever since. (Wiki about the film here, it was restored and dubbed into English in 1990s.) 

The Kingdom of Crooked Mirrors:



Sunday, July 27, 2014

Corporal Widow.


Nikolay Gogol.
(Daguerrotype photo, 1845)
Russian Foreign Ministry reacted angrily to the new extension of the EU sanctions with the head of the FSB security service and the president of Chechnya now on the list. (TASS report in Russian here, smoothed out English version here, BBC, without the colourful expressions, here)

The language of the MID comments is so flowery that it comes close to Nikita Khrushchev's legendary Mother of Kouzma, or Kuzkina mat' ("кузькина мать").

In one paragraph the diplomatic riposte uses a very slangy drug-world expression сесть на иглу, literally 'to sit on the needle', meaning to become addicted to intravenous drugs. This is used to describe the EU's seeming willingness to take as truthful the information coming from the US and Kiev.

Even more confusing might be a reference to "унтер-офицерская вдова", the non-commissioned officer's widow, or the sergeant's widow. It is a well-known Russian phrase, "унтер-офицерская вдова сама себя высекла" — 'the sergeant's widow flogged her herself.' It comes originally from Gogol's The Inspector-General, the 1836 satirical comedy describing corrupt and inept officials in a provincial town.

In the play, a lying Governor suggests that a complaining NCO's widow lies herself and improbably claims that it wasn't him who ordered her flogged but the woman flogged her herself. As often happens with quotes it became detached from the original and is now used in the meaning 'to punish oneself.'

Here is the original quote from The Inspector-General:

Гоголь, "Ревизор", Действие IV, Явление XV:
Городничий. Унтер-офицерша налгала вам, будто бы я ее высек; она врет, ей-богу, врет. Она сама себя высекла.

(The Government Inspector, Act IV, Scene XIV, translated by Arthur A Sykes, 1892)
GOVERNOR. The sergeant's wife lied when she told you I flogged her—it's 
false, yei Bohu, it's false. Why, she flogged herself ! 

(The Inspector-General, translated by Thomas Seltzer)
GOVERNOR. The officer's widow lied to you when she said I flogged her. She lied, upon my word, she lied. She flogged herself.

LE GOUVERNEUR. — La femme du sous-officier vous a menti, menti, j'ai ne l'ai pas faire fouetter. Elle s'est fouettée elle-même.


Read the Russian version of this post here.

Friday, July 11, 2014

Smileyk.


The internet 'smiley' has been adopted into Russian, but with a diminutive suffix -k. It's not смайли, but смайлик — smileyk or smileek.

It's an interesting case of morphological change as it gives the word masculine gender and also allows declension. If it stayed as it is in English - смайли - it would require neutral gender and no declension. Most probably the change stems from the natural language inclination towards ease of use.

This one is by me, see it on my I Work in Pages blog.
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